建湖| 屏东| 澎湖| 乐都| 博爱| 克东| 二连浩特| 扶绥| 龙凤| 墨脱| 沁水| 泰安| 安图| 宜兰| 定日| 屯留| 芷江| 黟县| 长阳| 阿瓦提| 库尔勒| 铁山| 建水| 博野| 阜城| 连云区| 翠峦| 镇坪| 贺兰| 高碑店| 鹤庆| 绍兴县| 威远| 西吉| 涟水| 阳新| 梁河| 松溪| 芷江| 抚州| 大新| 莘县| 奈曼旗| 汤旺河| 大荔| 永登| 内蒙古| 承德县| 九龙坡| 临川| 长治市| 色达| 米易| 东西湖| 东方| 灵寿| 威远| 逊克| 泽州| 盘山| 旌德| 玛沁| 美姑| 平罗| 芒康| 元坝| 松桃| 桐柏| 靖边| 汾西| 荔波| 班戈| 弋阳| 乌兰浩特| 长清| 浑源| 铜鼓| 晋江| 西华| 衡水| 上街| 吴桥| 顺德| 铜陵市| 武安| 株洲市| 满城| 余庆| 白朗| 崇阳| 广安| 集安| 峰峰矿| 梓潼| 翼城| 成安| 南华| 天峻| 阳信| 朗县| 炉霍| 罗城| 吕梁| 万载| 潼关| 多伦| 合江| 安溪| 贵港| 灵宝| 孟村| 巫山| 甘泉| 霞浦| 杂多| 峨眉山| 剑川| 定西| 铜山| 霍邱| 普洱| 阜康| 阳高| 淄川| 宁城| 独山| 阳东| 肃南| 平果| 潜山| 理县| 垦利| 广元| 尼玛| 大关| 常州| 响水| 射洪| 博湖| 隆安| 八一镇| 萝北| 伽师| 桑日| 蓝田| 盘山| 绿春| 冠县| 钓鱼岛| 武宁| 聂荣| 射洪| 蕉岭| 兴化| 虎林| 西山| 大关| 合肥| 峨眉山| 灌阳| 旬邑| 彭阳| 昭觉| 九龙坡| 宣汉| 吉林| 通化市| 东平| 兴国| 濉溪| 喀什| 浦北| 石阡| 旬阳| 大理| 瑞金| 白银| 横山| 怀仁| 临湘| 肥城| 郧县| 巩义| 连云区| 印江| 东西湖| 凤台| 武胜| 罗江| 剑川| 若尔盖| 丽水| 会理| 东阳| 泗水| 安岳| 龙口| 阳西| 马尔康| 镇原| 册亨| 江永| 云南| 衡东| 盖州| 遂溪| 辽阳县| 璧山| 鸡东| 尉氏| 盐田| 垣曲| 中江| 当涂| 望奎| 明光| 承德市| 韶关| 郓城| 莱芜| 陇西| 汉阴| 宜春| 轮台| 环江| 漳县| 绥江| 高阳| 武昌| 日喀则| 全椒| 郧县| 福安| 莒县| 满城| 积石山| 靖州| 宁晋| 南沙岛| 玉田| 柳城| 南华| 嘉义县| 花垣| 吉木萨尔| 克拉玛依| 珲春| 德兴| 延长| 治多| 怀远| 法库| 珠穆朗玛峰| 黔西| 平顺| 盐都| 勐海| 门头沟| 双柏| 银川| 武鸣| 恩平| 休宁|

黄石公园现神秘水下岩浆“喷泉” 或与地幔柱有关

2019-09-21 21:06 来源:IT168

  黄石公园现神秘水下岩浆“喷泉” 或与地幔柱有关

  AmancarrieshiswifewhileracingintheWifeCarryingcompetitiontomarktheCityDayinKrasnoyarsk,Russia,June10,2018.(Photo/Agencies)MencarrytheirwivesoveranobstaclewhileracingintheWifeCarryingcompetitiontomarktheCityDayinKrasnoyarsk,Russia,June10,2018.(Photo/Agencies)MencarrytheirwivesoverawaterobstaclewhileracingintheWifeCarryingcompetitiontomarktheCityDayinKrasnoyarsk,Russia,June10,2018.(Photo/Agencies)MencarrytheirwivesoverawaterobstaclewhileracingintheWifeCarryingcompetitiontomarktheCityDayinKrasnoyarsk,Russia,June10,2018.(Photo/Agencies)AmancarrieshiswifewhileracingintheWifeCarryingcompetitiontomarktheCityDayinKrasnoyarsk,Russia,June10,2018.(Photo/Agencies)TheGroupofSeven(G7)summit,whichkickedoffhereonFriday,isexpectedtobeatoughme,theworldsmostpowerfulindustrializedcountriesincludingCanada,France,Germany,Italy,Britain,JapanandtheUnitedStates,meeteveryyeartodiscusscollaborationonissueslikeworldeconomy,climatechange,,Quebec,uelMacrononissuesconcerningtradeandtheDemocraticPeoplesRepublicofKorea(DPRK),ssummitincludeincreasingin,theconfrontationoverWashingtonsunilateraldecisiontoimposemetaltariffsonimportsfromtheEuropeanUnion(EU)srejectionoftheglobalclimateaccordandIrannucleardealhavealsodividedtheG7."Itappearstobeoneagains,"saidPerrinBeatty,presidentandchiefexecutiveofficerofthe200,000-memberCanadianChamberofCommerce,slargestbusinessassociationisatanearbymediacenterlookingforsignsastowhetherCanada,theUnitedKingdom,France,Germany,ItalyandJapan--andtheEuropeanUnion(EU)asaparticipant--canconvincetheUnitedStatestorethinkitsanti-tradestrategy."Whatwehaveisapresidentwhohasunderminedthetrustoftheothersixleadersaroundthetable,andthatwillmakeitmuchmoredifficulttohaveacommonfrontonotherissuesaswell,"saidBeatty,,CanadafollowedtheEUsthattargetthehomestatesofprominentRepublicanmembersofCongress,suchasfruitjamsfromWisconsin--thehomestateofHouseSpeakerPaulRyan--andwhiskiesfromKentucky,--thehomestateofSenateMajorityLeaderMitchMcConnell."Wearehurtandwereinsulted,"saidCanadianFohwouldcomeintoeffectonJuly1iftheTrumpadministrationdidntwithdrawitsimporttaxes--to",andtryingtofind,whereverpossible,aCanadianorothersuppliertoprovidetheproducts."However,hesaidCanadasbusinesscommunityhasa"realconcern"withhowTrumpisattackingwhatshouldbethegoalofhaving"freeandopen"trade."Weveseenasuccessionofm,economies,"saidBeatty."Yetheseemsoblivioustotheconsequences."ncreasedcostsfornewspaperpublishersandnowimperilsthefateoflocalpapersacrosstheUnitedStates,ssoftwoodlumberindustry,butthathasresultedindrivingupthecostofhousingandfurnitureintheUnitedStatesandmakingAmericanfurnituremanufacturerslesscompetitive,sautoindustry,whichexportsabout80percentofthevehiclesitmanufacturestotheUnitedStates,orCanadasdairyindustry,basedonthepresidentsrecenttweetthat"CanadahastreatedourAgriculturalbusinessandFarmersverypoorlyforaverylongperiodoftime."AlloftheseactionsfurthererodeanyhopethattheNorthAmericanFreeTradeAgreement,currentlyunderrenegotiationbytheUnitedStates,CanadaandMexico,willsurvive,accordingtoBeatty."PresidentTrumphasmadeitclearthatheislessinterestedinhavinganagreementwhentheUnitedStateswinsthaninhavingonewhereeveryoneloses,"hesaid.",whetheryouareacustomerorasupplier,youwanttoensurethatbothhaveafairdealthatismutuallybeneficialandyouneverwantasituationwheresomeonefeelsvictimized.""YetthisseemstobePresidentTrumpfotherslose,"hewaselectedtotheHouseofCommonsasaMemberofParliamentforthethen-ProgressiveConservativePartyattheageof22."Ihaveneverseenaninstancelikethiswheredoingtradewitheachotheri,,diplomatically,culturallyandeconomicallythanwithanyothercountryintheworld,"JustinTrudeau,FrenchPresidentMacronandtheEUontradeissues,sayingheislookingforwardto"straighteningoutunfairTradeDeals",theleadershopetosignajoiloftensionbetweentheUnitedStatesanditsalliesindecades,fromtradetotheIrandealtoNAFTA,,Trumptweetedthathewas"gettingreadytogototheG-7inCanadatofightforourcountryonTrade."ButotherG7leaderswerepreparingforanAmericamorealonethaneverbefore,andnowTrumpfacestheveryrealriskofalliesteamingupagainsthim,thearticlesaid."TheAmericanpresidentmaynotmindbeingisolated,butneitherdowemindsigninga6countryagreementifneedbe,"MacrontweetedlateronThursday."UnderTrump,AmericafirstreallyisturningouttobeAmericaAlone,"theNewYorkersG7summit,,theFrenchpresidentsofficesaidFriday.

TheaerialphotoseriesofthecountrysideinSWChinasChongqingLiangpingdistrictwinsthefirstprizeatthe2018NationalYangtzeRiverPhotoCompetitionheldbytheOfficeoftheCentralCyberspaceAffairsCommission,theMinistryofEcologyandEnvironmentand1,,395participantsfromallwalksoflifeandtheirworksreflectedthenaturalbeautyandpeopleslifealongtheriver.(Photo/ChinaDaily)TheaerialphotoseriesofthecountrysideinSWChinasChongqingLiangpingdistrictwinsthefirstprizeatthe2018NationalYangtzeRiverPhotoCompetitionheldbytheOfficeoftheCentralCyberspaceAffairsCommission,theMinistryofEcologyandEnvironmentand1,,395participantsfromallwalksoflifeandtheirworksreflectedthenaturalbeautyandpeopleslifealongtheriver.(Photo/ChinaDaily)TheaerialphotoseriesofthecountrysideinSWChinasChongqingLiangpingdistrictwinsthefirstprizeatthe2018NationalYangtzeRiverPhotoCompetitionheldbytheOfficeoftheCentralCyberspaceAffairsCommission,theMinistryofEcologyandEnvironmentand1,,395participantsfromallwalksoflifeandtheirworksreflectedthenaturalbeautyandpeopleslifealongtheriver.(Photo/ChinaDaily)TheaerialphotoseriesofthecountrysideinSWChinasChongqingLiangpingdistrictwinsthefirstprizeatthe2018NationalYangtzeRiverPhotoCompetitionheldbytheOfficeoftheCentralCyberspaceAffairsCommission,theMinistryofEcologyandEnvironmentand1,,395participantsfromallwalksoflifeandtheirworksreflectedthenaturalbeautyandpeopleslifealongtheriver.(Photo/ChinaDaily)PhototakenonJune6,2018showscustomsenforcementofficersinIstanbul’sPendikporthavecaughtundocumentedmigrants,wrappedinaluminumfoiltohidefromx-raydetectors,onan18-wheeltruckenroutetoItaly.(Photo/Agencies)PhototakenonJune6,2018showscustomsenforcementofficersinIstanbul’sPendikporthavecaughtundocumentedmigrants,wrappedinaluminumfoiltohidefromx-raydetectors,onan18-wheeltruckenroutetoItaly.(Photo/Agencies)

  AnaerialviewofacolorfulsaltlakeinYuncheng,ShanxiProvince,June6,,thesaltlake,knownasChinas"DeadSea",displaysdifferentcolorsasaresultofmicroorganismsinthewater.(Photo/IC)AnaerialviewofacolorfulsaltlakeinYuncheng,ShanxiProvince,June6,,thesaltlake,knownasChinas"DeadSea",displaysdifferentcolorsasaresultofmicroorganismsinthewater.(Photo/IC)AnaerialviewofacolorfulsaltlakeinYuncheng,ShanxiProvince,June6,,thesaltlake,knownasChinas"DeadSea",displaysdifferentcolorsasaresultofmicroorganismsinthewater.(Photo/IC)AwomanisseenatGhandrukvillageofKaskidistrictinNepal,June6,2018.(Xinhua/SunilSharma)MulescarryingemptygascylindersproceedtowardsGhandrukvillagefromChhomrongvillageofKaskidistrictinNepal,June6,2018.(Xinhua/SunilSharma)PeoplecarryironnetsusedforconstructionatChhomrongvillageofKaskidistrictinNepal,June6,2018.(Xinhua/SunilSharma)AmanworksinthefieldatChhomrongvillageofKaskidistrictinNepal,June6,2018.(Xinhua/SunilSharma)LocalscutthehairofsheepatChhomrongvillageofKaskidistrictinNepal,June6,2018.(Xinhua/SunilSharma)

  ,capitalofChina,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/ShenBohan)ExamineestakeaselfiewiththeirfamilybeforethenationalcollegeentranceexaminationoutsideanexamvenueinChangchun,northeastChinasJilinProvince,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/LinHong),capitalofChina,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/ShenBohan),eastChina,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/XuXiaoxuan)ExamineesprepareforthenationalcollegeentranceexaminationoutsidetheexamvenueatFenyangHighSchoolinLyuliangCity,northChinasShanxiProvince,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/CaoYang)ExamineesenteranexamvenueinChangchun,northeastChinasJilinProvince,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/LinHong),capitalofChina,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/ShenBohan)RussianteenagericehockeyplayerslearnaboutkungfuduringavisittoBeijingHuijiaPrivateSchoolinBeijing,June11,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)RussianteenagericehockeyplayerslearnaboutkungfuduringavisittoBeijingHuijiaPrivateSchoolinBeijing,June11,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)ZhangYe,principalofBeijingHuijiaPrivateSchool,presentsgiftstovisitingRussianteenagericehockeyplayersinBeijing,June11,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)ARussianteenagericehockeyplayershowsaChinesecalligraphyworkduringavisittoBeijingHuijiaPrivateSchoolinBeijing,June11,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)

Amidstcontroversiesoverthe2015internationalnucleardeal,Iransrecentdecisiontopreparegroundsforboos,,alsoknownastheJointComprehensivePlanofAction(JCPOA),claimingitdidnotaddressIransballisticmissileprogram,itsnuclearactivitiesbeyond2025,deal,topressureIranforrenegotiationofthedealseekingtoaddresswhathehascalledtheir"commonconcerns."Currently,IranisnegotiatingwiththeEuropeancountriesonpreservingtheJCPOA,,,Britain,France,GermanyplustheEuropeanUnion,have,sofar,reiteratedtheircommitmen,IranssupremeleaderAyatollahAliKhameneionMondaysaidthatitseems"someEuropeangovernmentsexpecttheIraniannationtobothputupwithsanctionsandgiveupitsnuclearactivities."TheIranianleadersaidIranwouldnottoleratesanctionsnorundergo"nuclearausterity."HeorderedtheheadofAtomicEnergyOrganizationofIran(AEOI)toimmediatelypreparethegroundfortheuraniumenrichment"uptoalevelof190,000SWU(separativeworkunits)forthetimebeingwithintheframeworkofthenucleardeal."SWUisthestandardmeasureoftheeff,,sdecree,AliAkbarSalehi,headoftheAEOI,saidTuesdaythatthepreparationworkbeganatIransNatanzenrichmentfacility,observingthecountryscommitmentsto2015nucleardeal."Yesterday,wetookthefirststepandsubmittedalettertotheInternationalAtomicEnergyAgency(IAEA),",thespokespersonfortheAEOIBehrouzKamalvandisaidTuesdaythattheorganizationwillinformtheIAEAofthestartoftheprocesstoincreasethecapacitytoproduceuraniumhexafluoride(UF6),,Iranwassupposedtoachieveanenrichmentcapacityofatleast190,000SWU,FrenchPresidentEmmanuelMacrononTuesdaywarnedoftheriskofrisingtensionsduetotheIraniannuclearstand-off,urging"everyonetostabilizethesituationandnotgiveintothisescalationwhichwouldleadtoonlyonething:conflict."Meanwhile,FrenchForeignMinisterJeanYvesLeDrianwarnedIranonWednesdaythatitsplantoincreaseuraniumenrichmentcapacitymighthavedangerousconsequences."Thisinitiative(ofIran),"LeDriansaid."Iftheygotoahigherlevelthen,yes,theagreementwouldbeviolated,buttheyneedtorealizethatiftheydothentheywillexposethemselvestonewsanctionsandtheEuropeanswillnotremainpassive,",LeDriancalledfora"globalnegotiationframework"ontheIranianissue,atthesametimemaintainingthe2015nucleardeal,whichhecalled"astepforward"inpreventingIranfromhavingaccesstonuclearweapons."TheIraniansmustrealizeth,todaytheagreementisnotbrokenandIranfullyrespectsitscommitments,""positiveresults"ofthecountrysongoingnegotiationswiththeEuropeanparties,seekingtopreserveTehranseconomicinterestssubjecttonucleardeal."TheprospectofthetalkswiththeEuropeansshowsthatthesituationisnotpromising,"SpokespersonoftheIranianParliamentsNationalSecurts,sdecision,TehranhasthreatenedintheeventthatotherpartiestothenucleardealcouldnotsafeguardIransinterestsundertheaccord,eforTehranlimitingitsnuclearprogram.

  SouvenirsmadefortheDPRK-USAsummit,includinganotebookandafan,areseenattheInternationalMediaCenteratF1PitBuildinginSingapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)SouvenirsmadefortheDPRK-USAsummit,includinganotebookandafan,areseenattheInternationalMediaCenteratF1PitBuildinginSingapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)SouvenirsmadefortheDPRK-USAsummit,includinganotebookandafan,areseenattheInternationalMediaCenteratF1PitBuildinginSingapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)SouvenirsmadefortheDPRK-USAsummit,includinganotebookandafan,areseenattheInternationalMediaCenteratF1PitBuildinginSingapore,June10,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)

  Anindependentformationof55femalehonorguardsofthePeoplesLibera,whousedtostandwiththemalehonorguardssincetheirdebutin2014,areappearingasanindependentformationforthefirsttime.(Photo/Xinhua)Anindependentformationof55femalehonorguardsofthePeoplesLibera,whousedtostandwiththemalehonorguardssincetheirdebutin2014,areappearingasanindependentformationforthefirsttime.(Photo/Xinhua)Anindependentformationof55femalehonorguardsofthePeoplesLibera,whousedtostandwiththemalehonorguardssincetheirdebutin2014,areappearingasanindependentformationforthefirsttime.(Photo/Xinhua)Anindependentformationof55femalehonorguardsofthePeoplesLibera,whousedtostandwiththemalehonorguardssincetheirdebutin2014,areappearingasanindependentformationforthefirsttime.(Photo/Xinhua)AteacherteachesstudentsbasicperformingactionsofChinesedramaataprimaryschoolinNeiqiuCounty,northChinasHebeiProvince,June8,ritingtraditionalChineseculture.(Xinhua/ZhuXudong)AteacherteachesstudentsbasicperformingactionsofChinesedramaataprimaryschoolinNeiqiuCounty,northChinasHebeiProvince,June8,ritingtraditionalChineseculture.(Xinhua/ZhuXudong)StudentspracticebasicperformingactionsofChinesedramaataprimaryschoolinNeiqiuCounty,northChinasHebeiProvince,June8,ritingtraditionalChineseculture.(Xinhua/ZhuXudong)StudentspracticebasicperformingactionsofChinesedramaataprimaryschoolinNeiqiuCounty,northChinasHebeiProvince,June8,ritingtraditionalChineseculture.(Xinhua/ZhuXudong)AteacherteachesstudentsbasicperformingactionsofChinesedramaataprimaryschoolinNeiqiuCounty,northChinasHebeiProvince,June8,ritingtraditionalChineseculture.(Xinhua/ZhuXudong)

  AerialphototakenonJune9,2018showsawetlandintheKubuqiDesertofOrdosCity,northChina(Xinhua/PengYuan)AerialphototakenonJune9,2018showsawetlandintheKubuqiDesertofOrdosCity,northChina(Xinhua/PengYuan)AerialphototakenonJune9,2018showsawetlandintheKubuqiDesertofOrdosCity,northChina(Xinhua/PengYuan)AerialphototakenonJune9,2018showsawetlandintheKubuqiDesertofOrdosCity,northChina(Xinhua/PengYuan)AerialphototakenonJune9,2018showsawetlandintheKubuqiDesertofOrdosCity,northChina(Xinhua/PengYuan)AerialphototakenonJune9,2018showsawetlandintheKubuqiDesertofOrdosCity,northChina(Xinhua/PengYuan)

  AteacherteachesstudentsbasicperformingactionsofChinesedramaataprimaryschoolinNeiqiuCounty,northChinasHebeiProvince,June8,ritingtraditionalChineseculture.(Xinhua/ZhuXudong)AteacherteachesstudentsbasicperformingactionsofChinesedramaataprimaryschoolinNeiqiuCounty,northChinasHebeiProvince,June8,ritingtraditionalChineseculture.(Xinhua/ZhuXudong)StudentspracticebasicperformingactionsofChinesedramaataprimaryschoolinNeiqiuCounty,northChinasHebeiProvince,June8,ritingtraditionalChineseculture.(Xinhua/ZhuXudong)StudentspracticebasicperformingactionsofChinesedramaataprimaryschoolinNeiqiuCounty,northChinasHebeiProvince,June8,ritingtraditionalChineseculture.(Xinhua/ZhuXudong)AteacherteachesstudentsbasicperformingactionsofChinesedramaataprimaryschoolinNeiqiuCounty,northChinasHebeiProvince,June8,ritingtraditionalChineseculture.(Xinhua/ZhuXudong)AviewoftheShangri-LaHotelinSingapore,June11,aHotela“specialeventarea”fortheperiodofJune10to14,fortheupcomingsummitbetweenUnitedStatesPresidentDonaldTrumpandDemocraticPeoplesRepublicofKoreasupremeleaderKimJong-un.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)GuardsworkattheShangri-LaHotelinSingapore,June11,aHotela“specialeventarea”fortheperiodofJune10to14,fortheupcomingsummitbetweenUnitedStatesPresidentDonaldTrumpandDemocraticPeoplesRepublicofKoreasupremeleaderKimJong-un.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)AviewoftheShangri-LaHotelinSingapore,June11,aHotela“specialeventarea”fortheperiodofJune10to14,fortheupcomingsummitbetweenUnitedStatesPresidentDonaldTrumpandDemocraticPeoplesRepublicofKoreasupremeleaderKimJong-un.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)AviewoftheShangri-LaHotelinSingapore,June11,aHotela“specialeventarea”fortheperiodofJune10to14,fortheupcomingsummitbetweenUnitedStatesPresidentDonaldTrumpandDemocraticPeoplesRepublicofKoreasupremeleaderKimJong-un.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)PolicecarsareseenneartheShangri-LaHotelinSingapore,June11,aHotela“specialeventarea”fortheperiodofJune10to14,fortheupcomingsummitbetweenUnitedStatesPresidentDonaldTrumpandDemocraticPeoplesRepublicofKoreasupremeleaderKimJong-un.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MengXiangjun)

  AerialphototakenonJune9,2018showsawetlandintheKubuqiDesertofOrdosCity,northChina(Xinhua/PengYuan)AerialphototakenonJune9,2018showsawetlandintheKubuqiDesertofOrdosCity,northChina(Xinhua/PengYuan)AerialphototakenonJune9,2018showsawetlandintheKubuqiDesertofOrdosCity,northChina(Xinhua/PengYuan)AerialphototakenonJune9,2018showsawetlandintheKubuqiDesertofOrdosCity,northChina(Xinhua/PengYuan)AerialphototakenonJune9,2018showsawetlandintheKubuqiDesertofOrdosCity,northChina(Xinhua/PengYuan)AerialphototakenonJune9,2018showsawetlandintheKubuqiDesertofOrdosCity,northChina(Xinhua/PengYuan)

  PhototakenonJune7,2018showsexhibitsattheAfricanArtExhibitioninsouthwestChina(Xinhua/WangQuanchao)AcuratorintroducestheAfricanArtExhibitionheldinsouthwestChinasChongqing,June7,(Xinhua/WangQuanchao)JournaliststakephotosattheAfricanArtExhibitioninsouthwestChinasChongqing,June7,(Xinhua/WangQuanchao)PhototakenonJune7,2018showsexhibitsattheAfricanArtExhibitioninsouthwestChina(Xinhua/WangQuanchao)AjournalisttakesphotosattheAfricanArtExhibitioninsouthwestChinasChongqing,June7,(Xinhua/WangQuanchao)

  MaritimepersonneluseadronetopatrolontheHongzeLakeinHuaianofeastChinasJiangsuProvince,May15,,unmannedaerialvehicles(UAVs),es,includingaerialphotography,cropmonitoring,rescuing,,butalsobroadenstheimaginationofChinesepeopletowardsthecomingfuture.(Xinhua/ChenLiang)AnagriculturaldroneworksinthefieldsinBeiguanVillage,LinzhangTownshipofnorthChinasHebeiProvince,April19,,unmannedaerialvehicles(UAVs),es,includingaerialphotography,cropmonitoring,rescuing,,butalsobroadenstheimaginationofChinesepeopletowardsthecomingfuture.(Xinhua/HuGaolei)AnagriculturaldronespraysintherapeseedfieldsinGulingVillage,JiujiangofeastChinasJiangxiProvince,March21,,unmannedaerialvehicles(UAVs),es,includingaerialphotography,cropmonitoring,rescuing,,butalsobroadenstheimaginationofChinesepeopletowardsthecomingfuture.(Xinhua/FuJianbin)Adronedeliversvegetablefromamodernagriculturalparktoane-commercewarehouseinWugongCountyofnorthwestChinasShaanxiProvince,April22,,unmannedaerialvehicles(UAVs),es,includingaerialphotography,cropmonitoring,rescuing,,butalsobroadenstheimaginationofChinesepeopletowardsthecomingfuture.(Xinhua/LiYibo)Arescuedronecapableofbroadcastingandissuingwarnings,patrolsaboveabeachareainSanyaofsouthChinasHainanProvince,May30,,unmannedaerialvehicles(UAVs),es,includingaerialphotography,cropmonitoring,rescuing,,butalsobroadenstheimaginationofChinesepeopletowardsthecomingfuture.(Xinhua/ShaXiaofeng)Visitorswatchademonstrationofadronetakingpicturesduringthe20thChinaBeijingInternationalHigh-techExpo,inBeijing,capitalofChina,June8,,unmannedaerialvehicles(UAVs),es,includingaerialphotography,cropmonitoring,rescuing,,butalsobroadenstheimaginationofChinesepeopletowardsthecomingfuture.(Xinhua/JuHuanzong)AfarmeroperatesadroneforfarmworkinthefieldsinZiboofeastChinasShandongProvince,March14,,unmannedaerialvehicles(UAVs),es,includingaerialphotography,cropmonitoring,rescuing,,butalsobroadenstheimaginationofChinesepeopletowardsthecomingfuture.(Xinhua/CuiLilai)ChenZhe,aresearcherwiththeNanjingInstituteofGeologyandPaleontologyattheChineseAcademyofSciences,showstheearliestknownfootprintsleftbyananimalonearth,whichdatebackatleast541millionyears,inNanjing,JiangsuProvince,June7,StatesfoundthetracksintheThreeGorgesareaandpublishedtheirreportintheUSjournalScienceAdvances.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/YangBo)ChenZhe,aresearcherwiththeNanjingInstituteofGeologyandPaleontologyattheChineseAcademyofSciences,showstheearliestknownfootprintsleftbyananimalonearth,whichdatebackatleast541millionyears,inNanjing,JiangsuProvince,June7,StatesfoundthetracksintheThreeGorgesareaandpublishedtheirreportintheUSjournalScienceAdvances.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/YangBo)ChenZhe,aresearcherwiththeNanjingInstituteofGeologyandPaleontologyattheChineseAcademyofSciences,showstheearliestknownfootprintsleftbyananimalonearth,whichdatebackatleast541millionyears,inNanjing,JiangsuProvince,June7,StatesfoundthetracksintheThreeGorgesareaandpublishedtheirreportintheUSjournalScienceAdvances.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/YangBo)ChenZhe,aresearcherwiththeNanjingInstituteofGeologyandPaleontologyattheChineseAcademyofSciences,showstheearliestknownfootprintsleftbyananimalonearth,whichdatebackatleast541millionyears,inNanjing,JiangsuProvince,June7,StatesfoundthetracksintheThreeGorgesareaandpublishedtheirreportintheUSjournalScienceAdvances.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/YangBo)

  

  黄石公园现神秘水下岩浆“喷泉” 或与地幔柱有关

 
责编:
美国福利制度背后的逻辑
2019-09-21 07:23:58  来源: 新华每日电讯11版 【字号 留言】【打印】【关闭

  编造一个不存在的“美国”来愚弄国人甚至牟利固然不道德该谴责;但国人自己也应该警惕,时时刻刻问自己,这个说法是否和美国社会价值观一致?如果不一致,那么瞎编乱造的可能性就很大了

山石

  提到美国的福利制度,一直以来国内很多人有这样的观点:医疗是免费的,上大学是不用钱的,孩子是国家养的,甚至生孩子是有大量补助的……

  但是你如果细心注意一下新闻,特别是如果你不放心并且英文没问题、可以自己看美国媒体的新闻,你就会发现这些说法明显不靠谱。比如说医疗明明是很贵并且个人负担很重,大学学费也是非常贵,大学学费贷款总额早就已经超过万亿美元……

  这到底是怎么回事?出现理解偏差的主要原因又是什么呢?

  其实很简单,很多国人使用自己对福利的逻辑思维去套美国,编造一个完全不存在的社会。在大部分国人看来,之所以称为福利,自然是国家统筹资金统一发放,并且越多越好。但是,这并不是美国社会对福利的理解,甚至可以说是完全相反南辕北辙。

  美国社会和政治一直有左右之争。需要说明一下美国的左右和中国左右定义是不一样的,甚至在某些方面可能完全相反。左派主张大政府高福利随之而来自然是高税收;右派相反,主张小政府、请政府不要太干涉私人生活,因此肯定低福利,但也低税收。左右之争向来此消彼长,但社会的共识基本是不要走极端、以中间偏右为好。

  既然是中间还偏右,自然是不会有太多福利的,本文开头的那个神话也只能是神话。有人可能要问,美国人为什么不要政府高福利?这不很好吗?

  在美国人看来这一点也不好。政府不会生钱,羊毛出在羊身上,钱最终还是你自己付。而美国社会一向是相信甚至有些迷信私营企业私营经济,认为私营会带来高效率且物美价廉,对政府运作并不太感冒。因此国人心目中的那个天堂在大多数美国人看来半点都不像天堂、倒有点像地狱。

  当然这不等于美国政府完全没有提供福利。主要在这几方面:老年人的社保退休金和医疗、退役军人的医疗、低收入家庭的食物补助、低收入家庭未成年人的医疗。需要强调,最后一项必须是低收入家庭加上未成年,目前低收入的成年人可以在部分州得到政府医疗福利,但在其他州却不行。这也引出美国福利和其它社会制度一个很重要的特征,那就是制度经常是各州自定、很不一样的;因此了解美国谈论美国最忌讳的也就是以点带面,从一个地方的情形推广到全国。

  很明显,普通人是有工作有收入的,家里的成年人不可能从政府拿到福利,甚至家里的孩子都拿不到,生孩子有补助更是天方夜谭了。但是,这些美国人也是谈福利的。那么他们口中的福利又是什么呢?

  自己雇主提供的福利!在美国找工作谈待遇,工资固然重要但配套的福利也千万别忘了看,这个差别可是很大的。

  最重要的一条就是医疗保险。美国传统上医保主要是通过各个雇主向保险公司集体购买然后提供给雇员的,哪怕是奥巴马医疗改革也没有改变这个现实。每月的保险费一般是单位和个人共同负担,当然费用的多寡和负担比例各单位各异。和中国一样,有保险并不等于看病抓药就完全不用钱。保险的理赔范围、理赔规则也可以相差很远。也就是说,不同单位的医疗保险质量是有很大区别的。当美国人说福利好时,很可能就是自己单位的医保好。

  有工资的人要交社保税,该税的主要用途就是支付现在老年人的社保退休金,也可以改一个说法,说成政府替你储存起将来给自己发退休金。一般社保退休金是不够花的,因此很多人需要有补充退休金账号。这经常又是单位提供的。美国人经常说的401k、403b就是补充退休金账户。一般是这样的规则:雇员自己每月向账号投钱,然后雇主也会投一定的钱。雇员投多少自然是雇员自定(但有法定最高限额);雇主所投比例自然由雇主定规则,差别还是非常大。可以完全没有或者1%、2%工资,高的可以是7%、10%的工资;有的单位还实行浮动制,高年资的雇员多,低年资的少甚至没有;有的单位是雇主投和雇员一样多或者多1%、2%,这等于奖励爱积蓄放眼未来的好员工。非常明显,给一个在补充退休金方面比较慷慨的雇主工作意味着退休无忧,当然是普通人很看重的福利之一。

  除此之外,常见的单位福利还有失业保险、短期长期残疾保险、人寿保险等。有的单位甚至可能开设托儿所幼儿园餐厅等设施,低价甚至免费给职工使用。这些无疑也是福利,只是基本与政府无关。

  最后笔者想说一下,中美是两个很不同的国家,有着各自的历史和社会逻辑。编造一个不存在的“美国”来愚弄国人甚至牟利固然不道德该谴责;但国人自己也应该警惕,时时刻刻问自己,这个说法是否和美国社会价值观一致?如果不一致,那么瞎编乱造的可能性就很大了。

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